Archive for category Library Planning Research
Libraries have a special relationship with their buildings. They offer inspiring spaces to read and learn; quiet areas for contemplation and reflection. They offer breakthrough services such as innovation labs, iLabs and learning commons (ex. research inspiring library spaces). So, how do we get more from our library buildings? How do we create better communication plans that translate into new investments?
According to Innovative library services “in the wild”, only 30% of the population know about their local public library. More importantly, another 20% don’t know very much about the value of the library at all. We note that the library’s fortunes are built on communicating and understanding their customer.
When every library patron is viewed as a new customer, big opportunities are possible. During our library planning workshop at Steelcase Worklife in NYC, the group got a chance to dream about the future and visualize real solutions. They talked about the library’s need to transform and improve access. They discussed the need to create a marketing plan to communicate new types of library services.
The workshop provided a foundation for discussion about the library of the future and the needs of the library customer. Let us know what kind of relationship your library has with the public and building space through our survey for academic and public libraries.
At colleges across the county, there are many students and teachers who feel as if they are part of a nomadic tribe rather than being an integrated part of the academic community. Reflecting on the current state of higher education, this is especially true for non-traditional students and adjunct faculty members. Like many other nomadic people, non-traditional students and adjuncts do not have a continual space to call their own and, more often than not, they have to adapt to infertile climates and move on in order to subsist.
We believe it is time for the academic library to embrace non-traditional students and adjunct faculty to support collaborative work. For example, adjunct faculty are increasingly responsible for a majority of courses taught at community colleges in the United States. They teach non-traditional students who also need space to build skills for new jobs and careers. Together these groups represent a growing need for higher learning space.
According to a recent report created by the Center for Community College Student Engagement: “Colleges depend on part-time faculty to educate more than half of their students, yet they do not fully embrace these faculty members. Because of this disconnect, contingency can have consequences that negatively affect student engagement and learning.” Indeed, the academic library provides a space for non-traditional learners, as well as adjunct faculty and researchers who can use these new types of makerspaces for specialty knowledge building.
As a crucial part of sustaining the economic stability of universities across the county, and community college libraries in particular, the nomadic existence that non-traditional students. adjuncts, and many other types of researchers, experience is problematic. We see the big issues with this current system as being primarily two-fold:
- How is this system affecting student learning and retention?
- How is this system affecting expectations and best practice for higher education?
Without space, time and incentive, oftentimes the relationship between non-traditional students and adjunct faculty is highly transactional. One has to ask: Can libraries offer a solution?
- The academic library provides space for knowledge building activities.
- The academic library provides digital access to electronic resources.
- The academic library provides specialist librarians who offer research assistance.
The library can alleviate some of the strain that affects both adjunct faculty and the students that they teach. Whether it is embedded librarianship, research tutorials, directed learning activities or just being a space where students and faculty can meet face-to-face, the library and librarians are helping to shape the relationship between adjunct faculty and the traditional and non-traditional student population for the better.
“The manner in which human sense perception is organized, the medium in which it is accomplished, is determined not only by nature but by historical circumstances as well” Walter Benjamin
Walter Benjamin wrote The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction in 1936. The rapid shift toward dynamic, industrialized modernity created a pervasive anxiety among artists and art lovers. Could art be replaced by machines? New photographic technology became the catalyst, carrying fears surrounding visual art and, to some extent, perceptions of reality in of itself. Arguing that, in order for it to remain relevant, there needed to be a shift in how to understand art in a modern context. The themes of authenticity, tradition, ritual, value, mass production and proliferation of art are woven throughout the essay.
It is not surprising that similar conversations are occurring now surrounding the migration of the library’s print collections to digital platforms. Incorporating technology, “the machine,” into the library space is often viewed as being disruptive, inauthentic and contrary to the original intention of the 20th century library.
We are finding that these same themes brought forth by Benjamin in 1936 are entering our research process. How do we manage traditions and ritualistic expectations of library patrons? What is the value of the digital library? How do we connect technology with existing collections?
There remains a great deal of work for librarians to transform and create a new narrative for the printed book. The historical context of the 21st century requires libraries to be creative, expanding on the idea of Ceci n’est pas un Livre . The bookwall is a design example that the library can use to highlight the idea of learning in the library.
The overarching question remains: What type of machines do we allow into the Garden of Eden? Tell us what you think.
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We will be releasing data about the survey at our workshop “make the library an incubator for learning” on June, 5, 2014 @ Steelcase Worklife NYC
Image: René Magritte – La Lectrice soumise (1928)
Librarians have the opportunity to guide patrons on their quest for research information, both online and in the stacks, gradually aligning the responsibility of the learning to the learner themselves. Directed learning activities (DLAs) can help academic libraries engage in active learning support.
Instituted by many college libraries and learning resource centers, students can build their skills through the completion of a series of practice activities. DLAs can be effective in teaching grammar, writing, computer technology, Internet navigation, the possibilities are endless.
In 1968 Malcolm Knowles projected the ancient Greek word “andragogy” into educational discourse, as the art and science of helping students learn. As opposed to pedagogy, andragogy focuses only on the adult learning experience. Terminology aside, in defining a way to reach adult learners educators provide differentiated learning strategies addressing how adults learn in contrast to how children learn.
Using Bloom’s Taxonomy and adult learning strategies, librarians can create a library service program that can both actively engage and promote cooperative learning amongst students. Libraries can help foster lifelong learning DLA’s to adults and assist with community college retention rates and remediation.
Shifting from directed learning strategies, libraries offer other opportunities for self-directed learning (SDL). As a cornerstone of adult learning theory, SDL’s are dominant in the world of e-learning. The development of hybrid and online courses; digital library archives that provide the learner with unique data mining opportunities. Libraries are natural places for self-directed inquiry and learning.
How can these adult learning strategies work toward economic growth?
Self-directed public library spaces can be a useful tool to help small businesses and individuals gain access to information; which in turn contributes to learning opportunities. Libraries provide a useful location for informed collaboration. With endless resources at your fingertips, the library can successfully put theory into practice.
It is normal for the community to question whether a library needs to grow, move or be reduced in size. Libraries are transforming from print spaces into learning spaces. The challenge is to build on the strengths of the library as a tool for learning and research support. There are two areas where librarians are making a big impact:
1. Embedded Librarianship
2. Information Literacy
Embedded Librarianship is the integration of knowledge resources (people and online services) within a research program.
Information Literacy is locating research (general and specific) and making it available to the library’s community.
Both strategic service areas enable the library community to thrive and grow.
We are researching how libraries are transforming their environments to support their communities. We want to learn how to make libraries reflective spaces, collaborative and social gathering centers of knowledge.
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As part of our workshops and ongoing research process, we perform ethnographic analysis. This kind of research is invaluable for developing site-specific strategies because it enables participants to share their views of the interior and exterior of a library. Please take our library outcomes survey on our web site.
During the course of formal (surveys, interviews) and informal (observation) assessment, we look at furnishings, computers, equipment and exterior entrance and flow in/out of the building. Throughout this process we generate quantitative and qualitative data that is used to isolate behavioral patterns that will ultimately enable us to formulate solutions for the library space.
A few years ago, we did a full day workshop at the University of Manchester for CILIP. It was a wonderful event to share knowledge with 25 British Librarians, as we talked about library space planning and learned about best practices. The participants were very interested in new ideas for libraries; they could see the complexity of change and needed some answers. It was a great opportunity to tour the library and learn about the library director’s plans to improve the building. It was obvious the library was a great institution; history seeped out of its pores. However, it needed new tools to manage the complex world of libraries. It needed a new plan.
The Manchester Library recently reopened after an ambitious 50M renovation. The original building created a pleasing atmosphere, but was not a great place to work or study. Below is a picture of the entryway after the renovation.
The issues that were addressed by the Manchester renovation came to mind again when I read about the Boston Public Library recently in the New York Times. According to “Breaking out of the Library Mold, Boston and Beyond” the Boston Public Library is going through a transformation that is noteworthy. The entryway will be re-imagined with an open lounge area, new books and casual seating and retail space. According to Amy Ryan, the library will make physical changes to reflect the evolving nature of libraries.
Leaders need to focus on the library as a destination by developing plans for multiple activities and contexts. They need to understand the characteristics of the library building and services. They need to work on simple, complicated and complex challenges. They need to develop new ideas to accelerate improvements. Our workshops help open up discussions, set up a framework for improvements, stimulate attractors and encourage dissent and diversity of ideas. Our workshops help participants learn about the library, creating opportunities for new ideas to emerge.
Public Library buildings are local destinations that act as catalysts for urban development. They create opportunities to improve the quality of life in neighborhoods, augmenting both the visual and social value of main streets, markets and malls. With economic development in mind, we engage with private developers (of malls, commercial corridors, mixed-use developments); because libraries can provide long term improvements to the tenancy, in turn complementing neighborhood retail. Public libraries fit in a wide mix of public and private sector building projects; they make an impact on economic growth.
The Demand Institute: tale of 2000 cities developed a data set of economic indicators. The web site allows the user to compare their community with other communities, offering a statistical database relating geographic location and home ownership. We believe it reflects the kind of data that will help communities learn about their economic well-being and help build libraries to support healthy learning environments.
The web site started a discussion in the ACA Library Planning Studio. We discussed the idea of the library as an incubator for economic development. Does the Demand Institute give us a working model to help understand what gives value to a community?
Healthy communities can lower the barrier to market entry for small business by rethinking public library space. The computers and Wi-Fi, meeting spaces and cafes provide natural environments for business in the 21st century. The organic quality of cafes acting as business environments was truly exemplified last summer when we visited Milan. When we were touring the Doma, we were told that the Starbucks’s model was made in Milan Italy. It seems like coffee in the morning and in the afternoon are good times to do business.
According to the Howard Schultz, Coffee Bar Enthusiast, “In 1983, while on a buying trip in Milan, Italy, Schultz had an epiphany at one of the many coffee bars. He was struck by the connection people had to coffee, and to the coffee bars which served as a meeting place for people in the community and wanted to replicate the coffee bar at Starbucks stores.”
We believe the public library has evolved to incorporate the Starbuck’s model of a meeting place. Indeed, libraries make cities stronger because they are stable, strong and resilient. They support local and international economies; spaces where communities of practice thrive.
Below is a photo of the National Library of Singapore – Esplanade Library with Cafe.
Our library consultants are focused on the development of the academic library. We believe the academic library is a place for peer and collaborative exchanges. We believe that hybrid and online learning platforms offer a space for embedded librarians to improve student learning outcomes and contribute to the overall instructional efficacy of teachers. We believe that online discussion boards, a staple of assessment for online learning, require libraries and librarians to enhance support, for both students and instructors. We believe that the academic library can enhance graduation rates. Our strategies reflect the need to make libraries and librarians more effective in the struggle to improve student success.
The 2013 Ithaka S+R Library Survey outlines how academic libraries can develop new priorities for the 21st century. For example, the survey states that libraries were more interested in discovery systems in 2010. Today, most library directors are interested in information literacy and strategies to enhance academic support services. The report stated that 2/3′s of library directors are moving toward digital resources; something not surprising. The report stated that funding is the largest problem for academic libraries, requiring justifications for investment(s).
Arne Duncan, U.S. secretary of Education, stated: “Everyone deserves access to high-quality learning opportunities, from preschool to middle school and all the way through college. In order to achieve Pres. Obama’s goal to lead the world in college graduates by 2020, we must work to ensure that everyone has a chance to enroll and complete post secondary education.” As colleges, and community colleges in particular, are the cornerstone of this presidential goal, we have identified the academic library as being an integral part of the process. We believe the best strategy to accomplish these goals is to invest in collaborative spaces with professional and peer learning activities. The library can play a role as a physical space and online by providing embedded librarians to support student success.
According to the American Institute for Research, graduation rates in the United States are not inspiring. Less than one-third of entering community college students and less than one-half of entering four-year college students ever graduate. Dropouts from college impact the economy in terms of lost earnings and taxes to the tune of about $4.5 billion a year.
The NEW YORK DAILY NEWS headline dated November 26, 2011 declared: CUNY Dropout Rate Shows Public Schools Aren’t Preparing Kids. The article went on to state: “Four out of five students attending CUNY community colleges need to remedial class work in math, reading and writing.” Within six years 51% have dropped out and, of the rest, only 28% graduate.
As for the graduation rate at CUNY’S four-year colleges, the following was obtained from their individual websites:
- Brooklyn College – 27%
- Baruch College – 34%
- City College – 30%
- Hunter College – 19%
- Lehman College – 14%
- Queens College – 26%
- York College – 3%.
Granted, many of the students work or have other responsibilities and cannot graduate within four years. For example, the six-year graduation rate at Brooklyn College rises to 48.2% and it is possible that the eight-year graduation rate may rise to over 50%. The numbers are still problematic.
Of course, students’ learning cultures, family backgrounds and socioeconomic levels also affect graduation rates. Remedial programs, tutoring and mentoring do work, however. The data indicates that 27% of community college students utilizing CUNY’s intensive remedial programs graduate in two years while only 7% using their own resources graduate in two years.
We have an idea…and an action plan. We want our academic libraries to become incubators that help to increase graduation rates. Since most information perused by students in our two- and four-year colleges is now digital, space can be freed within these facilities for host of programs including digital tutors, peer support, staff counselors, etc.
To this end we are holding a library planning workshop on May 27, 2014 at the Steelcase Showroom in New York City at Columbus Circle. Please come and join us.
The library of the future is going to be a collection of activities and books. The book technology may change from being clay tablets to e-books. However, learning activities are the core of any library.
When we design new libraries, we look at potential learning activities. We examine the combinations of functions from technology to books to learning spaces. These learning activities may use print journals or computers. The combination of access to intellectual stimulation and space, enabling us to have experiences that enrich our lives.
Charlie Bennett, an academic librarian at Georgia Tech, delivered a poetic Tedx talk. He talked about what libraries offer and the value of thinking in new ways about technology and service. He explored the history of libraries and the factors that lead to the development of learning spaces. If you would like to be inspired, take 10 mins and listen here to the TED TALK LIBRARIAN.